Gross Motor Skills
Physical outcomes are targeted with activities that include gross motor skills, fine motor skills, balance, motor coordination and spatial relations and orientation. We use gross motor skills to do everyday things that involve our large muscles, and these skills involve the coordination of the muscles and the neurological system. They impact balance and coordination. Gross Motor skills require whole body movement and involve the large muscles of the body to perform everyday functions, such as standing, walking, running, and sitting upright. It includes eye-hand coordination skills such as ball skills (throwing, catching, and kicking). They also form the basis for fine motor skills that help us make small movements. A child with motor impairments can experience trouble moving in a controlled, coordinated, and efficient way.
Fine motor skills
Fine motor skills involve the use of the smaller muscles of the hands, commonly in activities like using pencils, scissors, playing with blocks, doing up buttons and opening boxes and bags. Fine motor skill activities involve manual dexterity and often require coordinating movements of the hands and fingers with the eyes, which is known as hand-eye coordination.
The development of these skills relies upon the age appropriate development of physical skills (such as core trunk control and shoulder strength) providing the stable base from which the arm and hand can then move with control.
Fine motor skill efficiency significantly influences the quality of the task outcome as well as the speed of task performance. Fine motor skills are essential for performing everyday skills as well academic skills. Without the ability to complete these everyday tasks, a child’s self-esteem can suffer, their academic performance is compromised and their play options are very limited. They are also unable to develop appropriate independence in ‘life’ skills (such as getting dressed and feeding themselves) which in turn has social implications not only within the family but also within peer relationships.
Activities that enhance and improve Gross and fine Motor skills are woven into the daily schedule of the children and goals are achieved through fun and games throughout the day. More specifically, Yoga, Sports (Games like Throw ball, Cricket, Cycling, Football), Sensory Track, Obstacle course, sorting, beading, tearing paper, art and craft activities are some of the ways used to improve Gross and Fine Motor Coordination in school.